Between 1970 and 2004, the global extraction of major metals grew by over 75 percent, industrial minerals by 53 percent, and construction materials by 106 percent Contrary to beliefs that the economy has been decoupling from natural resources and environmental impacts, the mining extraction frontier continues to expand. We still see raising per capita consumption in high demand countries like China, the European Union (EU) and the United States. Modern economies require mining resources. However, decisions on what and how much, where and how mining takes place must not be made without the consent or even against the will of those affected. Similarly, monitoring, restoration and compensation plans require prior informed consent.
Our recommendations are grounded on an international effort at exploring contemporary mining conflicts at the crossroads of growth and environmental justice. This is done based on 24 case studies from 18 different countries.