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Carbon trading

Launched through the Kyoto protocol in 1997, carbon trading is an approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for reduced emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon trading takes two …

Human energy use (endosomatic / exosomatic)

Ecological economists distinguish (following A. Lotka’s ideas) between ‘endosomatic’ and ‘exosomatic’ use of energy by humans. Inside the body, as food energy, adult humans spend per day between 1,500 and …

Virtual water and water footprint

Humans consume water directly for drinking, cooking and washing, but much more for producing commodities such as food, paper, cotton clothes, etc. The amount of water that is used in …

EROI (Energy Return on Energy Input/Invested)

EROI (see Figure 1) stands for Energy Return on Energy Input/Invested. As availability of easily accessible fuels decreases, the concept of EROI becomes more relevant. Essentially, it asks – how …

Environmentalism of the poor

Theories of ‘environmentalism of the poor’ (Guha and Martinez-Alier, 1997; Guha, 2000; Martínez-Alier, 2002) and ‘liberation ecology’ (Peet and Watts, 2004) have much in common with the branch of the …

Land grabbing

Used in earlier times, the notion of land grabbing has had mainly political connotations, referring to the aggressive taking of land, often by military force, for the expansion of territorial …

Devlin Kuyek on the ProSavana project2

Imagine a land of 14 million hectares, bigger than Switzerland and Austria combined. Populated by millions of farming families that together practice shifting cultivation. Now imagine a foreign consultant saying …

Socially sustainable economic degrowth

The concept of degrowth has been described as an equitable downscaling of production and consumption that increases human well-being and enhances ecological conditions at the local and global level, in the …

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)

For economists, a policy/program/project is justifiable in terms of public interest, and contributes to social welfare if the benefits, to whomever they accrue, outweigh the estimated costs. This approach is …

Life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA).

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying/comparing the whole life cycle, or cradle-to-grave, environmental impacts of the creation, marketing, transport and distribution, operation and disposal of specific human …

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